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What time span of research will you consider? Choose an area of research that is due for a review. Read the selected articles thoroughly and evaluate them. What methodologies do they use? Evaluate and synthesize the research findings and conclusions drawn. Note experts in the field: Note conflicting theories, results, methodologies.
Organize the selected papers by looking for patterns and by developing sub- topics. Note things such as: Two or three important trends in the research The most influential theories 6. Develop a working thesis.
Write a one- or two-sentence statement summarizing the conclusion you have reached about the major trends and developments you see in the research that has been done on your subject. If your literature review is extensive, find a large table surface, and on it place post-it notes or filing cards to organize all your findings into categories.
Move them around if you decide that a they fit better under different headings, or b you need to establish new topic headings. Write the body of the paper Follow the plan you have developed above, making certain that each section links logically to the one before and after, and that you have divided your sections by themes or subtopics, not by reporting the work of individual theorists or researchers.
Look at what you have written; focus on analysis, not description. Look at the topic sentences of each paragraph. If you were to read only these sentences, would you find that your paper presented a clear position, logically developed, from beginning to end? If, for example, you find that each paragraph begins with a researcher's name, it might indicate that, instead of evaluating and comparing the research literature from an analytical point of view, you have simply described what research has been done.
This is one of the most common problems with student literature reviews. So if your paper still does not appear to be defined by a central, guiding concept, or if it does not critically analyse the literature selected, then you should make a new outline based on what you have said in each section and paragraph of the paper, and decide whether you need to add information, to delete off-topic information, or to re-structure the paper entirely.
For example, look at the following two passages and note that Student A is merely describing the literature and Student B takes a more analytical and evaluative approach, by comparing and contrasting. You can also see that this evaluative approach is well signalled by linguistic markers indicating logical connections words such as "however," "moreover" and phrases such as "substantiates the claim that," which indicate supporting evidence and Student B's ability to synthesize knowledge.
Smith concludes that personal privacy in their living quarters is the most important factor in nursing home residents' perception of their autonomy. He suggests that the physical environment in the more public spaces of the building did not have much impact on their perceptions.
Neither the layout of the building, nor the activities available seem to make much difference. Jones and Johnstone make the claim that the need to control one's environment is a fundamental need of lifeand suggest that the approach of most institutions, which is to provide total care, may be as bad as no care at all.
If people have no choices or think that they have none, they become depressed. After studying residents and staff from two intermediate care facilities in Calgary, Alberta, Smith came to the conclusion that except for the amount of personal privacy available to residents, the physical environment of these institutions had minimal if any effect on their perceptions of control autonomy.
However, French and Haroon found that availability of private areas is not the only aspect of the physical environment that determines residents' autonomy.
Haroon interviewed residents from 32 different nursing homes known to have different levels of autonomy It was found that physical structures, such as standardized furniture, heating that could not be individually regulated, and no possession of a house key for residents limited their feelings of independence.
Moreover, Hopewho interviewed residents from various nursing homes, substantiates the claim that characteristics of the institutional environment such as the extent of resources in the facility, as well as its location, are features which residents have indicated as being of great importance to their independence.
Revising and Editing Your Work Read your work out loud.From the literature review experience, the students learned the importance of being selective and time efficient.
Often when a search was first begun, thousands of articles were listed, but the students learned the importance of narrowing the searches to the specific areas of focus.
A literature review surveys books, scholarly articles, and any other sources relevant to a particular issue, area of research, or theory, and by so doing, provides a description, summary, and critical evaluation of these works in .
Student Participation in the College Classroom: An Extended Multidisciplinary Literature Review Kelly A. Rocca The goal of this study was to integrate previous research conducted on student. Nonetheless, literature review of related literature is as important as any other component of the research process and can be conducted quite painlessly if approached in an orderly manner.
We organize our review around an economics-based framework that examines the supply and demand forces that shape the audit market. A dominant feature of the literature we review is .
A literature review is a specific type of research paper that focuses on published literature on a given topic. It is often the first step in doing original research, either scientific or otherwise.
It is more than a mere summary of the literature, however, as it presents analysis, patterns, and critiques of individual sources, groups of sources, and the body of literature as a whole.