Europe in the Early Middle Ages.
The status of these documents varies greatly between different countries and organisations - while governments in some countries have long had a culture of openness, others have always preferred secrecy. Reports or articles may often refer to documents to which the author has had privileged access; often the sources are not indicated and this can be very frustrating for researchers.
The situation in the European Union is further complicated because some of the working documents involved originate in the European institutions, while others come from individuals or governments in the member states. In the formative years of the European Communities, which later evolved into the European Union, documents had a relatively informal status.
Although many documents relating to the early treaties have been deposited in the official archives, they are not generally available in any other form.
Because the proceedings of the institutions and of legislative or treaty negotiations have always been multi-lingual, many documents will only be available in French or German, although official documents were often translated into English even before the United Kingdom joined the European Economic Community in Success in tracing working papers depends to a great extent on how complete a reference has been given and whether a document has ever had an official status.
Many papers presented at conferences or meetings will have been circulated previously, but the discussions are generally only summarised at a later date and are unlikely to be publicly available.
As working papers generally relate either to the legislative process or to policy development, they are frequently allocated multiple references, depending on the context, and this can cause confusion.
The EU has pioneered the use of electronic media in providing information and many official documents are now available online through the EU web server, Europaand its legal service Eur-Lexboth of which provide information in all official EU languages.
However, administrative processes and translation can often cause considerable delays in access, and some documents are never made public. This article aims to clarify some of the distinctions between different categories of working documents and provides details of some of the databases and collections that are essential for research into the workings of the European Union.
Inter-Governmental Conferences IGCs The European Union is a unique creation, as it is not an international organisation, but rather a partnership between separate member states. The three Communities, which were the forerunner of the European Union, were created by treatieswhich form the basis of all European Union law and policy.
The negotiation of each treaty has been preceded by an inter-governmental conference IGC involving parliamentary representatives, civil servants and heads of government from each country involved.
Contributions to these conferences fall into several categories: The next conference took place at Messina in Sicily in between the foreign ministers of the Six under the chairmanship of Paul-Henri Spaak, although observers from other countries, including the United Kingdom, were also present.
The Secretariat, recommended both the creation of a common market for goods and services and a union in the field of nuclear energy. Although some public statements from these conferences are available, no comprehensive collection of documents exists except for the originals deposited in the official archives.
The next major change to the treaty, the Single European Act ofdid not involve an inter-governmental conference, but was the subject of wide debate throughout Europe.
A 4-volume compilation of all official documents produced within the member states was published in by the Library of the Court of Justice to help researchers study the historical background of this process: Ratification of the Single European Act: A volume compilation collecting official responses from all member states in the original languages was published in Ratification of the Treaty on European Union: The European Commission launched its Europa web server in The next IGC, inwhich culminated in the Treaty of Amsterdam, was the first to make use of online services.
A retrospective database of all-important contributions to the debate was available online, but this has now been taken down.
A meeting of the European Council held in Cologne in June called for an IGC to suggest changes necessary to prepare to welcome countries from the former Communist bloc, as well as Cyprus and Malta, into the European Union.
Its aim was to restate the rights implicit in decisions of the Court of Justice, European legislation and other statements.
All information relating to the Charter is available here. This site has now been updated and some of the previous content archived. It was soon realised that the Nice Treaty had not achieved the desired reforms to the Community institutions. It finally submitted its recommendations, controversially, as a Draft Constitutional Treaty.
Some of the contributions to the debate, including the draft text, are available in English, French and German on the website of the CVCE Le Centre Virtuel de la Connaissance sur l'Europea research centre for the study of European integration based in Luxembourg Public referenda were held on the Constitutional Treaty in all member states; a majority of citizens in France and the Netherlands rejected it, so a new text was prepared and signed in Lisbon in Although rejected in a referendum held in Ireland inthe Lisbon Treaty was finally ratified by all member states and came into force on January 1st An online archive of key documents is available at the Europa website.
Although the Secretariat General has maintained an archive of documents from the IGCs for decades, access has always been limited to internal users.
Ina new venture was announced to digitise the contents of this archive. In addition, two consultative bodies — the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions — are involved in the legislative process.RobotUnion will select 20 startups that will be financed with up to €, equity free in cash plus acceleration benjaminpohle.com 20 startups selected will receive €3, each in cash equity free and services in the first phase.
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Many of the products and services that Amazon customers use around the world were invented and built right here in Europe. At our first European Innovation Day, we will showcase Amazon’s inventions in Europe and highlight the economic impact from this investment and job creation.
While the World Cup has taken center stage of the sporting world this summer, the immigration debate has taken center stage in European politics.