Jump to navigation Jump to search An illustration of Spearman's two-factor intelligence theory. Each small oval is a hypothetical mental test.
Related Links No subject in psychology has provoked more intense public controversy than the study of human intelligence. From its beginning, research on how and why people differ in overall mental ability has fallen prey to political and social agendas that obscure or distort even the most well-established scientific findings.
Journalists, too, often present a view of intelligence research that is exactly the opposite of what most intelligence experts believe. For these and other reasons, public understanding of intelligence falls far short of public concern about it.
The debate over intelligence and intelligence testing focuses on the question of whether it is useful or meaningful to evaluate people according to a single major dimension of cognitive competence.
Is there indeed a general mental ability we commonly The g factor in intelligence "intelligence," and is it important in the practical affairs of life?
The answer, based on decades of intelligence research, is an unequivocal yes. No matter their form or content, tests of mental skills invariably point to the existence of a global factor that permeates all aspects of cognition.
Intelligence as measured by IQ tests is the single most effective predictor known of individual performance at school and on the job.
By now the vast majority of intelligence researchers take these findings for granted. Yet in the press and in public debate, the facts are typically dismissed, downplayed or ignored. This misrepresentation reflects a clash between a deeply felt ideal and a stubborn reality.
The ideal, implicit in many popular critiques of intelligence research, is that all people are born equally able and that social inequality results only from the exercise of unjust privilege.
The reality is that Mother Nature is no egalitarian. People are in fact unequal in intellectual potential--and they are born that way, just as they are born with different potentials for height, physical attractiveness, artistic flair, athletic prowess and other traits.
Although subsequent experience shapes this potential, no amount of social engineering can make individuals with widely divergent mental aptitudes into intellectual equals. The functional importance of general mental ability in everyday life, however, means that without onerous restrictions on individual liberty, differences in mental competence are likely to result in social inequality.
This gulf between equal opportunity and equal outcomes is perhaps what pains Americans most about the subject of intelligence.
The public intuitively knows what is at stake: But with a more realistic approach to the intellectual differences between people, society could better accommodate these differences and minimize the inequalities they create.
Extracting g Early in the century-old study of intelligenceresearchers discovered that all tests of mental ability ranked individuals in about the same way. Although mental tests are often designed to measure specific domains of cognition--verbal fluency, say, or mathematical skill, spatial visualization or memory--people who do well on one kind of test tend to do well on the others, and people who do poorly generally do so across the board.
This overlap, or intercorrelation, suggests that all such tests measure some global element of intellectual ability as well as specific cognitive skills.Definitions of General Intelligence (G) – The G Factor 52 experts in the field of intelligence have defined general intelligence as as: a very general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex .
General intelligence, also known as g factor, refers to the existence of a broad mental capacity that influences performance on cognitive ability measures. Charles Spearman first described the existence of general intelligence in The g factor (also known as general intelligence, general mental ability or general intelligence factor) is a construct developed in psychometric investigations of cognitive abilities and human intelligence.
Together, the g- and s-factors comprise what is called the two-factor theory of intelligence: g-factor: Some psychologist comes up with a test of mental abilities and gives it to a lot of people.
When a score is calculated and averaged across abilities, a general intelligence factor is established. General intelligence, or the g factor, refers to a person's underlying intelligence that influences performance on tests of mental abilities.
General intelligence, or the g factor, refers to a person's underlying intelligence that influences performance on tests of mental abilities. Menu. Charles Spearman developed his two-factor theory of intelligence using factor analysis.
His research not only led him to develop the concept of the g factor of general intelligence, but also the s factor of specific intellectual abilities. L. L.