The movement began aroundhad begun to gain momentum byand was in decline by It led to the formation of new religious denominations, such as Methodist, Baptist, and Mormon. Abolitionists believed that slavery was a national sin, and that it was the moral obligation of every American to help eradicate it from the American landscape by gradually freeing the slaves and returning them to Africa.
Sometimes this reform impulse is an isolated one; sometimes it defines an entire era. Historians point to two such eras with roots in the nineteenth century: In this issue, leading scholars look at some of the key social ills identified by these reformers and the solutions they proposed to those problems.
In "Transcendentalism and Social Reform," Philip Gura examines the philosophical movement that attracted some of the most fertile minds of the antebellum era. Positing an "Oversoul" shared by all humanity but perceived only by those who transcended the cares and concerns of the material world, transcendentalists like Ralph Waldo Emerson, Bronson Alcott, and Margaret Fuller developed an American ideology of spiritual equality.
Gura traces the rise, and fall, of this ideology that spurred its adherents to reform. In "Education Reform in Antebellum America," Barbara Winslow finds the roots of the common school movement in the need for a trained and disciplined working class in industrializing America.
They proscribed a diet that excluded overly processed and rich foods, insisting that many foods overstimulated the body, and this, along with gluttony, led to sexual excesses as well as poor health.
The popularity of this diet reform movement can be seen in the creation of the American Physiological Society, in the emergence of Grahamite hotels that served only Graham approved meals—and in the protest by butchers and bakers against this reform philosophy.
The crisis of disunion brought an end to this first era of reform. Yet by the s and s, new calls for change could be heard. As Miriam Cohen shows us in "Women and the Progressive Era," middle class and elite women spearheaded a number of critical reform movements—just as they had done in the antebellum years.
Their concerns, like those of the earlier reformers, focused on the social welfare of the working class and the immigrant populations of the cities. They created settlement houses and campaigned for both protective labor laws and state aid to widowed mothers.
In addition, they hoped to reform the juvenile justice system and improve public health programs. Finally, in his essay "The Transnational Nature of the Progressive Movement," Daniel Rodgers reminds us that the study of Progressivism should not focus exclusively on Teddy Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson and their presidential policies.
The laboratories of Progressivism, he notes, were the state and city efforts to cope with the problems of a modernizing America.
American solutions to the pressing problems of urbanization, immigration, and environmental protection were often modeled on German or Italian, Danish or English efforts to ameliorate similar conditions in their home countries.
Ideas flowed across the Atlantic, and American reformers adapted foreign innovations to their own national circumstances.
Learn u.s. us history 8 reform with free interactive flashcards. Choose from different sets of u.s. us history 8 reform flashcards on Quizlet. Use these U.S. History videos on Social Reform Movements in America to explore the history of social reform in America, with a special focus on the Abolitionist . Reform Movements in American History. STUDY. PLAY. National Energy Program. This Reform movement began in the 's that fought to ban alcohol in the U.S. This movement led to the passage of the 18th Amendment in Voting Rights Act. , (LBJ), act which guaranteed the right to vote to all Americans no matter what .
As always, in addition to these thought-provoking and informative essays, you will find lesson plans for key grade levels. Our archivist, Mary-Jo Kline, provides additional reading for you on each of the topics our scholars have covered.
Pencils sharpened; thinking caps on: She is the author of several books including Jonathan Sewall: Odyssey of an American Conservative, First Generations: Inventing the American Constitution, and Revolutionary Mothers:The Second Great Awakening was a Christian revival movement during the early 19th century.
The movement began around , had begun to gain momentum by , and was in decline by Explores organized movements for social change from to s, including antislavery, women's rights, temperance, utopias, Populists, Progressives, African-American, American Indian and Chicano rights.
Women's rights movements are primarily concerned with making the political, social, and economic status of women equal to that of men.
One of the movements most important goals was to gain women's suffrage (the right to vote). Women's rights movements are primarily concerned with making the political, social, and economic status of women equal to that of men. One of the movements most important goals was to gain women's suffrage (the right to vote).
This Reform movement began in the 's that fought to ban alcohol in the U.S. This movement led to the passage of the 18th Amendment in Voting Rights Act. Sometimes called the First Reform Era, running through the s and '40s, it was a period of inclusive humanitarian reform.
The first statewide success for the temperance movement was in Maine, which passed a law on June 2, , which served as model for other states.