The United States is a blending of many cultures that feature many stable and different subcultures. In early childhood, these cultural differences become increasingly significant. Moral Differences One of the main traits cultural psychologists observe when they analyze cultures are the morals that a certain culture emphasizes. Because morals differ throughout the world, individuals stress certain ideas, goals and skills.
Go home and love your family. This includes momentary changes in their state of consciousness as well as how our interactions shape the development of their brains over time.
Thus far I have tried to make more general comments and not be too scientific about things, but now it is time to lay out some of this science so we have a common understanding as we move forward into deeper waters. In this post I will outline some of the basic attachment research. Attachment is a word used by psychologists to describe the relationship between children and their caretakers.
When we watch the behavioral patterns that characterize this relationship, four types of attachment are seen: Children who are disorganized — also an insecure attachment — have not developed an organized way to respond to their caregiver for reasons we will see in a moment.
The mom and the baby would be given a period of time to get used to the new space and then another person would enter the room and interact with both mom and baby in a friendly way. After a brief period with the stranger in the room, mom would then get up and leave the child with the stranger.
A short while later the mom would return to the room and reunite with the infant. All the while the observers behind the mirror would carefully document the behaviors of the infant.
Over time and the observation of thousands of these interactions, the four attachment types emerged: The infants noticed when mom left the room and protested. When mother returned, the infant went straight to the mother to be held, was easily reassured, and quickly returned to play.
The internal working model of these infants is likely to be one that expects that their needs will be known and met, that they will be attuned to and emotionally regulated, and that they can freely explore their environment in safety. When the mother began to leave the room, the infant might move toward her, but often did not.
When the mother returned, the infant acted like she was not even there and just continued playing. In the home, these parents were seen to be emotionally unavailable, imperceptive, unresponsive, and rejecting.
Some were responsive in many non-emotional interactions, but were very dismissive and non-responsive when the infant was emotionally needy, frustrated, or angry.
These infants often expressed random aggression, and were more clingy and demanding in the home then securely attached infants. They were very upset when she left the room, immediately went to her upon return and got very clingy.
Their behavior upon reunion alternated between outbursts of anger and going limp, and in either case the infant was not soothed by the presence of the caregiver even if the mother was seen to be caring and emotionally available. In these homes, the mother was inconsistently available for the infant, and when she was available she was often pre-occupied and un-attuned to the infant in her responses.
These infants were the most anxious, clingy, and demanding at home. This is not used as a primary classification, but rather an additional descriptor. This was not an original classification in the SS, but later studies showed some infants who got disorganized when their mothers left the room, and also expressed disorganized patterns of behavior on return move towards mother, then away; freeze; go into a corner.
They were not soothed if they made contact with the mother. So there you have it: It is important to emphasize a couple of points about this research. It is not simply a classification of the infant. Later research showed that infants can have an entirely different attachment relationship with the father or other primary caregiver.
Why would this be? Because there is an intelligent mind inside the child that can shift its mode of operation depending on the circumstances at hand.
Why is this important? What this shows is exactly what we all know and what the Behaviorists will not acknowledge: It also shows that our minds are structured — in large part — by the kinds of interactions we have with our primary attachment figures.
To repeat a key point from an earlier post: The relationship with the caregiver s is the single most powerful and modifiable influence on the developing mind and brain of a child. We typically have multiple modes of operation in our psyche when it comes to relationship because we usually have had more than one attachment relationship in our lives.
These modes have their own characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling, behaving, and interacting. Patterns of interaction with our children shape their developing minds and brains, leading to internal working models of relationship.In this chapter, we will briefly describe a model of emotional intelligence based on the competencies that enable a person to demonstrate intelligent use of their emotions in managing themselves and working with others to be effective at work.
Does authoritarian parenting put kids at greater risk of anxiety, low self-esteem, and depression? Maybe yes. For example, in a behavioral genetics study of Chinese twins, researchers found that kids with authoritarian fathers were more likely to suffer from a psychiatric disorder -- even after accounting for the influence of genes (Yin et al ).
Attachment theory is a psychological model attempting to describe the dynamics of long-term and short-term interpersonal relationships between humans. "Attachment theory is not formulated as a general theory of relationships; it addresses only a specific facet": how human beings respond within relationships when hurt, separated from loved ones, or perceiving a threat.
When cultural morals and parenting styles mix, the culture of the home pushes a child into a certain habits. These habits can shape the child into anything from an independent and rebellious rascal to an overly reliant, dependent mommy’s boy. Below is a quote from one of our athletes who is a 16 year-old high school quarterback who loved football and had the potential to start as a freshman — until the coach destroyed his mental game Going into high school I was a standout athlete with high confidence but after my freshman year I .
Dec 20, · Authoritative parenting is, by far, the most effective parenting styles because it promotes a child's ability to withstand potentially negative influences, including life stress and exposure to antisocial peers.