Written by Arindam Nag Employees differ in their personalities and these differences influence the way they react to the external and internal pressures that exist in any organization. It has been observed that this mental framework has a direct impact on their individual performance which ultimately affects the organization as a whole.
Factors that contributed to undetected spread of the Ebola virus and impeded rapid containment One year into the Ebola epidemic. January Several factors, including some that are unique to West Africa, helped the virus stay hidden and elude containment measures.
Gborie Chapter 3 - In Guinea, it took nearly three months for health officials and their international partners to identify the Ebola virus as the causative agent.
By that time, the virus was firmly entrenched and spread was primed to explode. By 23 Marcha few scattered cases had already been imported from Guinea into Liberia and Sierra Leone, but these cases were not detected, investigated, or formally reported to WHO.
The outbreaks in these two countries likewise smouldered for weeks, eventually becoming visible as chains of transmission multiplied, spilled into capital cities, and became so numerous they could no longer be traced.
Countries in equatorial Africa have experienced Ebola outbreaks for nearly four decades. Though they also have weak health systems, they know this disease well. All previous outbreaks, which remained largely confined to remote rural areas, were controlled, with support from WHO and other international partners, in periods ranging from three weeks to three months.
In those outbreaks, geography aided containment. Laboratory capacity is in place.
Staff know where to send patient samples for rapid and reliable diagnosis. Health systems are familiar with Ebola and much better prepared. For example, hospitals in Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo, have isolation wards, and staff are trained in procedures for infection prevention and control.
Governments know the importance of treating a confirmed Ebola case as a national emergency. An old disease in a new context In contrast, West African countries, which had never experienced an Ebola outbreak, were poorly prepared for this unfamiliar and unexpected disease at every level, from early detection of the first cases to orchestrating an appropriate response.
Clinicians had never managed cases.
No laboratory had ever diagnosed a patient specimen. No government had ever witnessed the social and economic upheaval that can accompany an outbreak of this disease.
Populations could not understand what hit them or why. Ebola was thus an old disease in a new context that favoured rapid and initially invisible spread.
As a result of these and other factors, the Ebola virus has behaved differently in West Africa than in equatorial Africa, challenging a number of previous assumptions.
In past outbreaks, amplification of infections in health care facilities was the principal cause of initial explosive spread. Transmission within communities played a lesser role, with the notable exception of unsafe burials.
In West Africa, entire villages have been abandoned after community-wide spread killed or infected many residents and fear caused others to flee.
Also in past outbreaks, Ebola was largely confined to remote rural areas, with just a few scattered cases detected in cities. In West Africa, cities — including the capitals of all three countries — have been epicentres of intense virus transmission.3.
You Feel Powerless. When you’re poor or in the middle of a financial hardship, it can make you feel powerless to do anything to change it.
But giving in to those feelings of helplessness will. Across the U.S., large numbers of young children are affected by one or more risk factors that have been linked to academic failure and poor health. 1 Chief among them is family economic hardship, which is consistently associated with negative outcomes in these two domains.
This report reveals that, after several years of decline, the national food hardship rate for all households increased from percent in to percent in This part of the benjaminpohle.com web site looks into some of the causes of poverty around the world.
Issues covered include inequality; the relationship between the rich and poor; corruption; the roles of the IMF, World Bank, debt, the United Nations, United States, Britain and other wealthy countries.
In , according to the U.S. Census Bureau, about million people, or percent of the nation’s population, lived below the official poverty level. Although the poor were primarily children and adults who had not participated in the labor force during the year, according to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, million individuals were among the “working poor” in A Journey to Construct an All-Encompassing Conceptual Model of Factors Affecting Clinician Well-Being and Resilience.