His mother was Susanna Fontanarossa.
Columbus founded a colony in today's Santo Domingo on the island of Hispaniolawhich became the colonial headquarters for later Spanish explorations and the eventual conquest of powerful empires and tribal peoples from Mexicothe Caribbeanand South America. Columbus' engagement with largely peaceful Indians was often brutal, and his objective of Christianizing native inhabitants was callously compromised by the expedition's quest for gold and the capture and enslavement of Indians.
In the decades after Columbus' voyage, Spanish Conquistadors would overthrow the Aztec and Incan civilizations through superior military technology, singular acts of treachery, and the willing support of subject populations who lived in fear of mass ritual human sacrifice and other forms of oppression.
Native American populations throughout the Western hemisphere would be decimated through colonial occupation by the Spanish, Portuguese, French, and English, largely through epidemic diseases brought by The anniversary of the voyage is observed as Columbus Day throughout the Americas and in Spain.
In recent years, the calamitous consequences of European colonization upon Native American life has been emphasized, while Columbus' extraordinary courage and vision, and the historic movement toward a common human destiny initiated through contact have been construed as a dated evaluation of the explorer that marginalizes the near total subjugation of Native American peoples.
Early life According to the most widely acknowledged biographies, Columbus was born between August and Octoberin Genoa. His father was Domenico Colombo, a middle-class wool weaver working between Genoa and Savona.
His mother was Susanna Fontanarossa.
Bartolomeo, Giovanni Pellegrino, and Giacomo were his brothers. Bartolomeo worked in a cartography workshop in Lisbon for at least part of his adulthood. Christopher Columbus conjectural image by Sebastiano del Piombo.
While information about Columbus' early years is scarce, he probably received an incomplete education. He spoke a Genoese dialect. In one of his writings, Columbus claims to have gone to the sea at the age of Inthe Columbus family moved to Savona, where Domenico took over a tavern.
InColumbus began his apprenticeship as business agent for the important Centurione, Di Negro, and Spinola families of Genoa. Later, he allegedly made a trip to Chios, in the Aegean Sea.
In Mayhe took part in an armed convoy sent by Genoa to carry a valuable cargo to northern Europe. He docked in Bristol, Galway, in Ireland and very likely, inhe was in Iceland. InColumbus reached his brother Bartolomeo in Lisbon, keeping on trading for the Centurione family.
Inhis son, Diego was born. No authentic contemporary portrait of Christopher Columbus exists. Over the years historians have presented many images that reconstruct his appearance from written descriptions.
They depict him variously with long or short hair, heavy or thin, bearded or clean-shaven, stern or at ease. Columbus is described as having reddish hair which turned to white early-on in life and a reddish face typically resulting from a lighter skinned person receiving too much sun exposure.
Columbus's campaign for funding Columbus first presented his plan for a western route to the Indies to the court of Portugal in The king's experts believed that the route would be longer than Columbus thought the actual distance is even longer than the Portuguese believedand they denied Columbus' request.
It is probable that he made the same outrageous demands for himself in Portugal that he later made in Spain, where he went next. He tried to get backing from the monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile, who, by marrying, had united the largest kingdoms of Spain and were ruling them together.
After seven years of lobbying at the Spanish court, where he was kept on a salary to prevent him from taking his ideas elsewhere, he was finally successful in Isabel finally turned Columbus down on the advice of her confessor, and he was leaving town in despair, when Fernando intervened.
Isabel then sent a royal guard to fetch him and Ferdinand later rightfully claimed credit for being "the principal cause why those islands were discovered.
Financially broken from the Granada campaign, the monarchs left it to the royal treasurer to shift funds among various royal accounts on behalf of the enterprise. According to the contract that Columbus made with King and Queen, if Columbus discovered any new islands or mainland, he would: Be given the rank of Admiral of the Ocean Sea Atlantic Ocean Be appointed Viceroy and Governor of all the new lands Have the right to nominate three persons, from whom the sovereigns would choose one, for any office in the new lands Be entitled to 10 percent of all the revenues from the new lands in perpetuity; this part was denied to him in the contract, although it was one of his demands Have the option of buying one-eighth interest in any commercial venture with the new lands and receive one-eighth of the profits The terms were extraordinary, but as his own son later wrote, the monarchs did not really expect him to return.
Columbus' theories Christian Europe, which had long enjoyed safe passage to India and China—sources of valued goods such as silk and spices—under the hegemony of the Mongol Empire the Pax Mongolica, or "Mongol peace"was by the fifteenth century, after the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire, under complete economic blockade by Muslim states.
In response to Muslim domination on land, Portugal sought an eastward sea route to the Indies, and promoted the establishment of trading posts and later colonies along the African coast.
Columbus had a different idea. By the s, he had developed a plan to travel to the Indies then construed roughly as all of south and east Asia by instead sailing directly west across the "Ocean Sea" the Atlantic. It is sometimes claimed that the reason Columbus had difficulty obtaining support for his plan was that Europeans believed that the earth was flat.
Columbus sits among the flowers and trees of Belgrave Square, London. Most scholars accepted Ptolemy 's claim that the terrestrial landmass for Europeans of the time, comprising Eurasia and Africa occupied degrees of the terrestrial sphere, leaving degrees of water.
Finally, he read maps as if the distances were calculated in Italian miles meters or feet.Chapter 14 T and Q. STUDY. PLAY. 1. Ottomans. the request of Granada from the Moores were completed. and supporting Christopher Columbus voyage. They created kingdoms of Spain and have lots of power. It is the" 22nd -largest in the world, located in the Caribbean after Cuba, and the tenth most populous island in the world".
. Glossary a Arawak The Arawak are a group of linguistically related but culturally diverse Indian peoples who inhabit the tropical forests of South America, especially north of the Amazon River, extending from the Andean foothills to the Antilles.
Columbus, Christopher: fleet Illustration depicting Christopher Columbus's fleet departing from Spain in Kean Collection/Hulton Archive/Getty Images . Christopher Columbus (/ k ə ˈ l ʌ m b ə s /; before 31 October – 20 May ) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonist who completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain.
|Voyages of Christopher Columbus - Wikipedia||His family was respectable, but of limited means, so that the early education of Columbus was defective. Up to his arrival in Spain only one date has been preserved.|
He led the first European expeditions to the Caribbean, Central America, and South America, initiating the permanent European colonization of the Americas. The Second Voyage of Christopher Columbus Second Voyage Adds Colonization and Trading Posts to Exploration Goals. During his second voyage, Christopher Columbus saw that the indigenous Haitians played with rubber balls.
Upon returning to the island, Columbus discovered that the men he had left had angered the native . Christopher Columbus, commonly rendered in Spanish as Cristóbal Colón ( - May 20, ) was a Genoese-born navigator, explorer, and colonizer whose epochal voyage west across the Atlantic Ocean, in , in search of a direct sea route to the Indies, established permanent European contact with.