There was no way for the Japanese to beat the U. On the other hand, if the German grand strategy had been followed and carried out by Germany AND Japan, we could, very possibly, have lost the war, and today be speaking German on the East coast and Japanese on the West coast! A lot of historic material exists to support various theories about how the Germans and the Japanese could have won World War II.
Beginning in Italy, and spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in literature, philosophy, art, music, politics, science, religion, and other aspects of intellectual inquiry.
Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, and searched for realism and human emotion in art.
It is in their new focus on literary and historical texts that Renaissance scholars differed so markedly from the medieval scholars of the Renaissance of the 12th centurywho had focused on studying Greek and Arabic works of natural sciences, philosophy and mathematics, rather than on such cultural texts.
Portrait of a Young Woman c. However, a subtle shift took place in the way that intellectuals approached religion that was reflected in many other areas of cultural life. This new engagement with Greek Christian works, and particularly the return to the original Greek of the New Testament promoted by humanists Lorenzo Valla and Erasmuswould help pave the way for the Protestant Reformation.
Well after the first artistic return to classicism had been exemplified in the sculpture of Nicola PisanoFlorentine painters led by Masaccio strove to portray the human form realistically, developing techniques to render perspective and light more naturally.
A critical contribution to Italian Renaissance humanism Giovanni Pico della Mirandola wrote the famous text "De hominis dignitate" Oration on the Dignity of Man, which consists of a series of theses on philosophy, natural thought, faith and magic defended against any opponent on the grounds of reason.
In addition to studying classical Latin and Greek, Renaissance authors also began increasingly to use vernacular languages; combined with the introduction of printingthis would allow many more people access to books, especially the Bible.
Some scholars, such as Rodney Stark play down the Renaissance in favor of the earlier innovations of the Italian city-states in the High Middle Ageswhich married responsive government, Christianity and the birth of capitalism.
This analysis argues that, whereas the great European states France and Spain were absolutist monarchies, and others were under direct Church control, the independent city republics of Italy took over the principles of capitalism invented on monastic estates and set off a vast unprecedented commercial revolution that preceded and financed the Renaissance.
Italian Renaissance View of Florencebirthplace of the Renaissance Many argue that the ideas characterizing the Renaissance had their origin in late 13th-century Florencein particular with the writings of Dante Alighieri — and Petrarch —as well as the paintings of Giotto di Bondone — Some writers date the Renaissance quite precisely; one proposed starting point iswhen the rival geniuses Lorenzo Ghiberti and Filippo Brunelleschi competed for the contract to build the bronze doors for the Baptistery of the Florence Cathedral Ghiberti won.
Yet it remains much debated why the Renaissance began in Italy, and why it began when it did. Accordingly, several theories have been put forward to explain its origins. During the Renaissance, money and art went hand in hand.
Artists depended entirely on patrons while the patrons needed money to foster artistic talent. Wealth was brought to Italy in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries by expanding trade into Asia and Europe.
Silver mining in Tyrol increased the flow of money. Luxuries from the Eastern world, brought home during the Crusadesincreased the prosperity of Genoa and Venice. Please improve the article or discuss the issue.
June Coluccio Salutati In stark contrast to the High Middle Ageswhen Latin scholars focused almost entirely on studying Greek and Arabic works of natural science, philosophy and mathematics,  Renaissance scholars were most interested in recovering and studying Latin and Greek literary, historical, and oratorical texts.
Ancient Greek works on science, maths and philosophy had been studied since the High Middle Ages in Western Europe and in the medieval Islamic world normally in translationbut Greek literary, oratorical and historical works such as Homer, the Greek dramatists, Demosthenes and Thucydides were not studied in either the Latin or medieval Islamic worlds; in the Middle Ages these sorts of texts were only studied by Byzantine scholars.
One of the greatest achievements of Renaissance scholars was to bring this entire class of Greek cultural works back into Western Europe for the first time since late antiquity.
Arab logicians had inherited Greek ideas after they had invaded and conquered Egypt and the Levant. Their translations and commentaries on these ideas worked their way through the Arab West into Iberia and Sicilywhich became important centers for this transmission of ideas.
From the 11th to the 13th century, many schools dedicated to the translation of philosophical and scientific works from Classical Arabic to Medieval Latin were established in Iberia.
Most notably the Toledo School of Translators. This work of translation from Islamic culture, though largely unplanned and disorganized, constituted one of the greatest transmissions of ideas in history.
Social and political structures in Italy A political map of the Italian Peninsula circa The unique political structures of late Middle Ages Italy have led some to theorize that its unusual social climate allowed the emergence of a rare cultural efflorescence.Fortunately for the United States, the Japanese strategic plan for World War II was flawed in that the Japanese High Command decided to take on a sleeping giant in order to gain control of the Pacific basin, rather than attack the USSR.
The bubonic plague written about "this is the end of the world: the black death" by barbara tuchman. Plague By Barbara Tuchman "This Is the End of the World: The Black Death" taken from A Distant Mirror, she presents facts and information about Europe during the time of the Bubonic Plague.
She starts the story by going in to detail on how the disease arrived in Europe. This sets the ground floor for information in to the society living and. The bubonic plague written about "this is the end of the world: the black death" by barbara tuchman Essay The bubonic plague was one of the most deadly catastrophes of the Middle Ages.
It is well chronicled by many historians, although not many accounts are able to capture the reader's attention so well as that of Barbara Tuchman. Eseja: The bubonic plague written about "this is the end of the world: the black death" by barbara tuchman. The bubonic plague was one of the most deadly catast.
BARBARA TucHMAN "This Is the End of the World": The Blach. Death I N OCTOBER , two months after the fall of Calais The disease was bubonic plague, present in two forms: one that infected the "Trs Is TilE END oF THE WoRLD": THE BLACK DEATH Burial of the plague victim.